Increasingly, in private construction, when designing houses, preference is given to hipped roofs. It is to this type and hip roof.
Advantages and disadvantages of hipped roofs
The most common and simplest type is the hip roof, in which the two slopes are trapezoid-shaped and are located along the longer side of the house. The other two are triangular in shape; they are called hips. A characteristic feature of this design is the absence of gables. Due to this, the force of wind impact on the roof becomes minimal. In addition, the issue of structural insulation is solved much easier and more efficiently.
Other types of hip roofs: half-hipped, hip, mansard, complex shape. The half-hinged roof has both gables and hips that are located above them. Tent roofs consist of four slopes in the form of triangles, the peaks of which converge at one point.
A two-story house with a hipped roof will look more impressive and interesting than with the usual dual-slope.
The main advantages of this type of roof can be called strength, reliability, wind resistance, excellent design. The smaller the slope of the roof planes relative to the ground, the harder it is to stay on it in water and snow. In addition, the space under the hip roof can be more efficiently used to make the attic floor.
The disadvantages include the complexity of their installation, especially on their own, and the high cost. To know how to make a hip roof correctly, you must have a clear project. Despite the fact that any multi-slope system is much more difficult to install than a single slope roof (or the most common, gable), it is quite possible to do it yourself.
Consider what the hip roof consists of. The rafter system is the basis of the whole structure. Its main elements are:
- corner rafters;
- main rafter bars;
- intermediate rafter bars;
- short rafter bars;
- ridge beam;
- vertical racks;
- wind beams.
Corner rafters are attached to the ends of the ridge beams, their angle of inclination is always less than that of intermediate rafters. This item has the largest load. Four main rafters are mounted at the ends of the ridge perpendicular to it. Two hip main rafters are installed along the axis of the ridge beam. Intermediate beams are attached to the side surface of the ridge with the step required by the calculations, and are based on the power plate. If the length of the skate is quite small, then you can do without them. Short rafters are fixed on the side surfaces of the corner beams.
Vertical posts are located at the junction of the ridge and inclined beams; they rest on the screed beams. But often for optimal use of the attic space they are replaced with other supporting elements.
Mauerlat made of solid beams and form a frame around the perimeter of the walls of the house - the basis for the truss system. Screeds that are located inside this frame are commonly used as floor beams. Wind beams are needed to reinforce the entire truss structure; installed either on the windward side of the house, or on both sides. There are still additional elements: struts, fillies, ladies' staff, sheaves.
Given the fact that this type of roof is not very simple, then pre-made projects of houses with hip roof with all the necessary calculations and drawings. Primarily determined with the configuration of the roof. The more complex the option chosen, the more material and time it will take to construct the structure.
After the project is done, all materials are available, you can begin directly the installation of the hip roof. The main stages of installation:
- A waterproofing material is laid along the contour of the walls.
- The entire perimeter is tied up with a mauerlat. Attach it to the walls with anchors and brackets.
- Then it is necessary to carefully make markup for the installation of truss according to the calculations made earlier. In order for all elements to be laid flat, marks on opposite walls must be strictly at the same distance from each other.
- Overlapping beams can be placed directly on the mauerlat and function as screeds or be placed at a lower level. In the latter case, they are mounted on timber beams, pre-installed on the inner wall of the house.
- The mauerlat tie is made with transverse bars. To facilitate further installation, you can cover the resulting structure with a deck of free-lying boards.
- Vertical supports are attached to the floor beams or screeds. If you plan to house with an attic, then these supports are usually not used. On top of them set ridge bar. The ridge of the hip roof is located strictly along the axis parallel to the walls of the building. Carefully measured the verticality and horizontalness of the resulting frame. Any distortions in it will lead to further deviations of the entire truss structure.
- Next to the ridge attached intermediate rafters.
- Corner rafters, if necessary, further strengthen the struts.
- According to the project, all other details of the truss system are installed.
- If the wooden details of the structure were not pre-treated with protective compounds, this can be done after installation.
- The next step is marking for future openings for windows, pipes and mines. On the contour of which are additional rails.
- The entire structure is covered with vapor barrier materials.
- On rafters the obreshetka from boards under a roof is stuffed.
- Is laying insulation, which is top covered with a layer of insulation from moisture and wind.
- Further the kontrobreshetka fastens.
- The final stage is the direct covering of the hip roof. Usually, a soft roofing material is chosen, since it is easier to mount it on different versions of hip roofs. But it is necessary to lay sheets of plywood or OSB slabs under it. Hard roof can be mounted directly on the counter lattice.
Mauerlat is used in brick and block houses, in frame houses there is an upper frame binding. In houses of timber or ordinary wooden, the upper crown of the walls acts as a mauerlat.
Attaching rafters to the power plate can be done in several different ways:
- using two metal corners, one on each side of the rafter;
- drive nails at an angle so that after passing through the rafter, they are firmly entrenched in the power plate;
- using special metal brackets;
- applying floating mounts.
The ridge of the hip roof carries a considerable load, so it is necessary to properly fasten the rafters on it. This can be done in various ways:
- overlay rafter over the bar overlap and bolting;
- if wooden or metal lining is used for fastening, it is necessary to fit the rafters on the ridge at the required angle.
Selection of lumber must be done on the basis of the load that they will have to withstand. For the main structural elements, wood of the first grade only is taken, for additional wood of the second grade can be used.
When choosing a material for the roof, you should pay attention to the percentage of waste that will remain after the flooring. When using sheet products, it can be up to 30 percent. Therefore, it is more rational to use soft versions of the roofing or assembly of individual elements.