The design of the gabion is a bulk wire mesh filled with stones. Translated from Italian gabbione - "big cell". Initially, gabions were used in military affairs to protect gun batteries and had the appearance of woven baskets tightly clogged with earth.
Today, the scope of application of structures has expanded significantly: the protection of river channels and coasts, the prevention of landslides on the slopes. Owners of country houses have also found a worthy use for gabions - fences naturally fit into landscape design and completely reliably protect houses and land.
For the manufacture of fences are used two elements: metal mesh and filler.
The grid for gabions is made by weaving hexagonal cells (60, 80, 100mm in size) from the wire, which are interconnected by double twisting the wire. The work uses galvanized steel. Depending on the operating conditions, manufacturers offer wire:
- CPU - galvanized + coated with polymer;
- TSAAM - coated with an alloy (zinc, aluminum, mischmetall);
- TsAMMP - treated with an alloy (zinc, aluminum, mischmetall) + coated with a polymer.
A wire with a diameter of 2.2 to 3.4 mm is used. In the construction markets, for the installation of fences, they sell the net in rolls 25 m or 50 m long and 1.0 m, 2.0 m, 3.0 m and 4.0 m high.
For a long period of service construction choose stones with frost resistance, not fragile or eroded, as well as characterized by increased hardness. Similar qualities have cobblestone, pebbles, quarry stone. The material is coarsely ground. Slate and sandstone are considered the cheapest.
Particular attention is paid to the frost resistance of the stone, as in severe frosts the material may crack. Water, falling into cracks, leads to their expansion. After a while the stones will begin to crumble, which will lead to the destruction of the entire fence.
The main requirement for filling is that the parameters of the stones should not be less than the size of the cell (or better, more, about 30-40%).
Due to the flexibility of the mesh, various types of bulk products are produced. For the arrangement of the fence, you can use the following structures:
- box-shaped - in the form of mesh rectangles of various parameters, equipped with lids and internal partitions. They are made by attaching mesh walls to the welded frame or welding the entire wire duct. In the second method of production, the products are more durable and neat;
- cylindrical - gabions resemble “candy” and come in lengths from 2.0 to 4.0 m, and in diameter of 0, 65 or 0.95 m. This form is less strong than box-like, as it does not contain partitions. A similar gabion is used, as a rule, as an additional decorative element of the fence.
To facilitate the construction of a fence, you can purchase ready-made fencing elements of suitable sizes in the store: from 30 to 100 cm wide, from 50 to 100 cm high and from 2 to 6 m long.
The main characteristics of constructions from gabions
A distinctive feature of this fence is its ability to become stronger over time. This is due to the design feature: the stones gradually fit into the grid more and more tightly. Particles of soil and fine dust falling between the stones, give the whole structure of solidity. It is believed that the strength of a stone fence in about 5 years increases by 50%. The design of gabions has other positive qualities.
Flexibility is provided by a metal grid that allows the structure to follow any direction under different curves, as well as adapt to the draft of the ground. Moreover, even a significant erosion of the soil at the base of the fence can cause only a certain deformation of the structure, without causing serious damage.
Increased strength and stability are provided by the properties of the metal mesh, which acts as a reinforcing element of the structure. The grid turns the whole fence into a single unit. The fence adequately withstands changes in humidity and temperature, as well as the pressure of the soil.
The permeability is due to the porosity of the gabion, which eliminates the impact of hydrostatic pressure on the fence, so you do not need to create additional drainage. Due to the natural filtration of water, vegetation may appear on the surface of the fence.
Advantages of installing a fence from gabions
- democratic cost of materials, cost-effective installation - are provided with low costs for the arrangement, maintenance of construction, repair. For the construction of the fence does not require special equipment, special skills. Mechanical damage to an area of the fence does not reduce the strength of the whole structure and is easily fixed;
- esthetic appearance - designs will adequately decorate any suburban area. It is possible to construct fences of the desired size and shape, as well as combine gabions with other elements and design options for fences;
- the absence of any special maintenance of the facility. If desired, you can wash the dust from the fence even with a stream of water from a hose;
- durability - guaranteed by the long service life of steel mesh (plastic coated wire serves more than 100 years);
- environmental friendliness - for a construction of fences the natural natural filler is used. Due to the permeability of water and the ability to accumulate soil, gabions heal the landscape.
How to make a fence?
For the installation of fencing is not necessarily the construction of the foundation, as the design is self-supporting.
In work materials are used: rolls of a grid, stone, support, brackets, crossing points, cement. You will need the following tools: pliers, nippers, shovel, building level.
- Marking is carried out on the site, places for support pillars are determined. The installation site of the fence is leveled. If desired, you can additionally dig a trench (with a depth of no more than 30 cm and wider than the intended fence by 10 cm) and fill it with sand by about 15 cm.
- Suitable for poles supports (at least 1/3 of the pole length) are prepared. It is recommended to install square / rectangular supports and maintain a distance between them of no more than 2.0-2.5 m. To control the verticality of the installation, a building level is applied. Pits are filled with cement. Work on the installation of the grid continues after complete drying of the solution (about 3 days).
- From a roll the bases of a design are cut. In the center of the bases (in the appropriate places) the holes for the supports are pre-cut. Formed gabion frame - mesh cloth is attached to the supports and the bottom with staples.
- Separate sections of the fence are filled with stone. At this stage it is important to ensure that the stones fit tightly and do not form voids. For one approach, only one third of the gabion is filled. To fix the laid stones, apply horizontal binding brackets.
- All gabions are filled in the same way. Given the precipitation of stones, you should fill the structure 2-3 cm above the top edge.
- The testament stage is the temporary fixation of the roof on the structure. Already after the precipitation of stones, the upper grid of the gabion is tightly tied to the side edges of the structure with staples. If there are stones that interfere with a snug fit, then they are turned over or shifted to the center of the structure.
When filling sections, large stones are laid at the grid, and small ones should be covered in the center. If you carefully and gradually lay colored stones, you can put an interesting pattern on the wall of the building.
During construction, two types of fence are created: solid (strong construction completely covering the area from prying eyes) and decorative (with wooden, metal elements).
Combining materials should be based on their different characteristics: decorative wooden elements will quickly lose their elegant appearance than stone sections. If it is difficult to choose the appropriate type of hedge, then you can turn to professionals who will take into account your wishes and features of the house, the site.