This wonder of nature has interested people since time immemorial. It is believed that the ancient Egyptians more than 4,000 years ago began planting them near their homes. In the Middle Ages, their breeding was considered an honorable occupation, and a person who showed disrespect for this work could be severely punished. In the Russian principalities this type of activity appeared in the XII-XIII centuries, and in the 16th-17th centuries, terry peonies, lilies, carnations, mallows, violets, irises, daffodils and many other flowers bloomed in the garden of the Moscow Kremlin. Do not do without them now and we. In city squares there are always well-groomed multi-colored flowerbeds, under the windows of each house and in the front gardens of private properties, some Flora gifts are sure to grow and please the eye. And what kind of cottage without flowers? Even the busiest summer resident will sooner or later come off from the beds and construction and plant at least some of these amazing plants, looking at which he will certainly be happy. Maybe this is the secret of flowers - to bring us joy? Let's take a closer look at them, and begin immediately with a large group - perennial flowers.
Why choose perennials to give
Planting perennial flowers in the country - this is primarily convenient, because in the spring there is always not enough time to plant all the necessary vegetable and berry crops. Perennials, as a rule, are planted in the fall, when the gardener is not so busy, but this is not the only advantage of perennial flowers. Significant advantages include the following:
- the opportunity to save on the purchase of seeds or seedlings, as many perennials multiply by bulbs or dividing rhizomes;
- it is perennials that bloom in spring in the very first, when other flowers have not yet blossomed;
- From the perennial flowers it is possible to form the basis of a flower bed, and to plant different annual crops every year. Thus, the flowerbed each year will look different;
- from some perennials that bloom at different times, you can make a flower garden, which will delight with flowering all season, but takes very little time.
Some perennial plants over time grow so much that they look more like shrubs or low trees. These include some varieties of hydrangeas, septibinki, spray roses and many others.
Most perennial flowers overwhelm in the ground without any problems, but some require additional conditions for wintering. So, gladiolus must be dug out for the winter and kept in a cellar or a refrigerator, and tulip and daffodil bulbs should be covered with lapnik from mice. It is impossible to use straw for shelter - in it mice will be got guaranteed. Also primroses need shelter from mice, as mice gnaw juicy sprouts in the middle of a flower rosette.
The site on which the onion crops are planted before the winter should not be flooded with spring melt water, otherwise the bulbs will be wet and die.
Varietal panicled phloxes can freeze in severe winters with little snow, therefore in the end of autumn it is advisable to cover them with a layer of leaf litter or lapnik. Frost-resistant crops can also be sheltered, for example, if you have acquired a rare expensive variety and are not sure that it will survive well.
The general rules for the dry shelter of plants for the winter are as follows: at the end of autumn, when it is already freezing at night, and during the day there is still warm sunny weather, the plant is covered with a loose, dry substrate. They can serve as rotted compost, leaf litter, sawdust, spruce branches and even simple garden soil. After the onset of a steady temperature minus, the wintering bush can be covered with foil and cut branches. In the spring, it is necessary to remove the film as early as possible and scoop up the shelter so that the plant does not straighten out.
When planting perennials on a flower bed, follow a certain order: the highest plants should grow in the center, and lower ones can be planted closer to the edges. Plants should also be combined in color and timing of flowering.
Tall perennials to give
Tall plants are usually planted near the fence, near the wall of the house or in the center of the flower bed. Shade-tolerant can be planted under the trees or between them.
For decoration of the middle of the flower bed, you can use such tall plants as:
- Delphinium. Folk names - thug or larkspur. Enjoys the honor of summer residents for a powerful peduncle covered with small flowers of the brightest and most delicate shades - pink, blue, lilac, white, densely blue. Some varieties reach a height of 2 meters. Belongs to the family of buttercups. Without a transplant can grow in one place up to 10 years. Watering is needed at the root, as excessive moisture can lead to powdery mildew. It is not difficult to cure this disease - it is necessary to reduce watering, cut off the diseased leaves and treat the plant with any fungicide, for example, Bordeaux mixture. Transplanted delphinium spring division of rhizome, cuttings or seeds.
- Buzulnik. This plant has beautiful leaves and flowers that look like bright yellow candles. Reaches two meters in height, which allows them to decorate a fence or wall. Buzulnik grows better in partial shade, in loose moist soil. A great place for him would be a shady corner near the pond. Transplant the plant by dividing the rhizome in spring or seeds. Buzulnik looks beautiful next to the hosts, lilies, highlander snake. Its large patterned leaves advantageously shade blooming tulips and primroses.
- Digitalis. Its other name is digitalis. It belongs to the plantain family. Grows in a one-, two- or perennial culture. Peduncles form high candles of gentle light shades. The foxglove blooms all summer, in autumn the fruit-boxes with small seeds ripen. The plant contains toxic substances.
- Meadowsweet (meadowsweet). Blooms in early summer with lush tassels of fragrant light yellow flowers. Loves wet places without stagnant groundwater. Unpretentious, but for heavy clay soils need to add sand. Propagated by dividing the bush, seeds and parts of rhizomes in the spring or before winter.
Lupins are suitable for planting under trees. They are unpretentious, have a long flowering period and enrich the soil with nitrogen.
This numerous group includes plants with a height of 40 to 80 cm. This size allows them to arrange the middle part of flower beds, rabatok, to use for both group and for single plantings. Medium colors include:
- Yarrow Beautiful medicinal plant, blooming from August to October with baskets of white, yellow, pink color. Propagated by dividing rhizomes.
- Pion. This is a well-known and loved by many gardeners plant also refers to medicinal. It blooms in early summer with lush, fragrant hats of white, pink or cherry color. Unpretentious, but for irrigation and fertilizer responds to an increase in inflorescences and rich openwork foliage. When transplanting peonies can not be buried, the growth point must remain on the surface of the earth. Otherwise they will bloom badly.
- Day-lily. This extensive group of bulbous includes many varieties that differ in color, height, timing of flowering. Most of them have a pleasant aroma. Better bloom in the bright sun.
- Rhodiola rosea (golden root). Because of its beneficial properties it is grown everywhere. The broken stem emanates the smell of a rose, hence its name. Blooms loose golden thyroid inflorescences. There are red varieties. It is undemanding to lighting, but prefers abundant watering. Propagated by seed and root division. For the winter, the seedlings are mulched with peat or compost. The golden root has a mass of beneficial properties: improves heart function, normalizes blood pressure and blood sugar levels, soothes, has a beneficial effect on male and female health, improves the activity of the thyroid gland.
Plants up to 40-50 cm in height are usually considered as undersized by gardeners. Usually they are used to decorate the front edge of flower beds. From the composition of low perennials can make rock gardens and Japanese gardens with stones.
- The deserved first place among the stunted flowers is occupied by the viola, or pansies - a charming plant, symbolizing the girl's beauty and tenderness and loved by summer residents for a huge variety of color. It begins to bloom from the end of spring and will continue until the end of summer, if the faded flowers are cut off in time. Viola looks great not only in the flowerbed, but also in containers and hanging pots.
- Periwinkle This flower - a champion in survival in a variety of conditions. Can do almost without watering, grow in the shade and continue to delight the dark green foliage and pale blue flowers.
- Anemone (anemone). This tender spring beauty feels better on a place protected from wind and drafts. Loves space, spraying and drained soil. It can be propagated by seed and vegetatively. A variety of anemones - sleep-grass or backache - is popular with summer residents. Flowers appear before the leaves.
- Gentian. This blue or blue mountain bell looks great in the alpine hills. The flower loves a little shading and peace.
- Phlox. Among the wide variety of types and varieties of phlox there are low perennials that form a continuous carpet of white, lilac or pink flowers. These are styloid or soddy varieties. The plant is susceptible to powdery mildew. It is treated with moderate watering at the root and spraying with any fungicide. Dry inflorescences desirable to remove.
- Gypsophila. Its flowering shrub resembles a cloud of snowflakes, although there are pink and purple varieties. The plant is unpretentious, blooms in mid-summer. At the end of the season re-flowering is possible. It prefers a light neutral soil, grows well on stony soils. Loves sunny places. Mulching is desirable for easy wintering. Strongly overgrown bushes need to be cut for more lush flowering. Easily propagated by cuttings.
- Carnation herbaceous. Unpretentious small bushes with thin stalks and small flowers from white to dark red. Easily propagated by self seeding. Summer residents love to sow tree trunks near it - then no mulching of the soil under the trees is required and there is no need to look for a separate place for this delicate flower.
- Linen. These delicate blue flowers are sung by no less than the queen of flowers - roses. Poets call them "the eyes of Russia." The plant is unpretentious, cold-resistant and looks good in any flower garden. You can propagate by dividing the bush or seeds - self-seeding. In addition to the usual varieties with blue flowers, there are varieties with red, yellow, white or lilac.
Among the short-growing perennials, there are many ground cover plants, which makes it possible to use them both in flower beds and in any other places to create a mulching effect and protection against weeds.
These plants are planted next to the support. Curly perennials are great for vertical gardening site.
Beautifully look arbors, flowers, trellis, walls of houses entwined with greenery and flowers. In summer, such a blooming veil will protect from heat and create a secluded atmosphere. Among them, gardeners are popular:
- Climbing roses. One of the most beautiful climbing plants. Demands leaving - for the winter of a lash it is necessary to remove and cover. In addition, roses are prone to disease and pests. In the autumn after leaf fall, the branches should be sprayed with blue vitriol from fungal diseases, cut weak shoots and cover when the temperature drops below 5 degrees. The rose needs regular dressing, but does not like excessive watering. Of its pests damage aphid and spider mite.
- Ivy. This vine quickly grows, almost nothing hurts and needs only annual pruning. The plant is loved by gardeners for unpretentiousness in care, frost resistance, fast growth and beautiful carved leaves.
- Girlish grapes. Another climbing plant, widespread throughout Russia. It has open shiny brilliant green leaves that turn crimson red in autumn. Also needs regular pruning.
- Actinidia. This plant belongs to dioecious lianas of the family of the same name. Gardeners are valued for beautiful foliage and tasty wholesome berries. In our country, actinidia colomicta is common - a frost-resistant liana up to 10 meters long. In July, she pleases with fragrant flowers, and in September fruits ripen on her. Berries actinidia have great benefits: they contain large amounts of vitamin C and many essential trace elements, are treated for scurvy, hypertension, weakness and dizziness.
Curly perennials look the most spectacular of all ornamental plants, and some of them are also a valuable food crop. The world of ornamental perennials is huge, and more importantly, very beautiful. From all this diversity it is not difficult to choose some of the most interesting plants that will bloom and bring joy for many years.