Not so long ago, the finishing of surfaces in the room consisted in a simple whitewashing, or pasting wallpaper, on the newspaper layer. If cracks were observed in the walls, they were sealed with cement formulations or alibastroy. Now for the finishing work there is a certain algorithm, in which the finishing putty of the walls is an obligatory stage, thanks to it, a perfectly smooth surface is obtained.
What is the purpose of finishing putty?
Finishing putty - a stage of rough finishing which assumes reception of ideally equal covering for the further putting paint, decorative plaster, or pasting of wall-paper. Thanks to the application of a finishing, putty layer, the walls become even, resistant to high humidity, to the appearance and spread of fungal formations and mechanical damage.
Finishing putty is a soft, homogeneous, elastic mixture without coarse impurities. The finishing composition is applied with a layer of no more than 2 mm. Recently, a mixture has appeared on the market - a superfinishing putty, which is applied with a layer of 0.3 mm, it masks microscopic scratches from a spatula.
How to make the right choice of finishing putty? The material must have the following qualities:
- the composition should easily rest on the walls without sticking to the instrument;
- even the minimal layer must hide the defects of the base layer;
- must be crack resistant;
- have a uniform white color.
If in the finishing shalevka during application foreign inclusions were found - the material is not of good quality and must be replaced.
Types and characteristics of finishing putty
For finishing finishing of ceilings and walls they produce material of three types:
- Finishing plaster.
- Polymer (latex and acrylic).
Thanks to modern innovative developments, plaster mixes for finishing, have the following advantages:
These finishes have the following characteristics:
- economy - material consumption of 1.1 kg per square meter;
- does not shrink;
- it is applied evenly;
- has a fraction size - 0.15 mm;
- quick drying
This material has disadvantages:
- not suitable for wet rooms;
- the price of the material is much more expensive than cement.
Most often, the material is used as a finishing plasterboard drywall. In the composition there are special additives that protect the surface from aggressive effects. Drying time - half an hour.
Polymer finishing putty
This material appeared on the market not so long ago, but its popularity is growing exponentially. Many masters advise to use this particular material, as the polymer putty has a lot of positive properties:
- resistant to deformation;
- does not shrink;
- has high adhesion to mineral surfaces;
- It has vapor impermeability, therefore it can be used for outdoor work;
- uniform drying gives a guarantee of high-quality surface;
- working with a finishing putty will not make up there, even for a beginner;
- not afraid of mechanical damage.
In other words - this is one of the best finishing materials, which has only one drawback, high cost.
Cement based putty
Cement finishing putty is used in all types of finishing work - both internal and external. This is a fine-grained composition, which is used for shpaklevanii concrete and brick surfaces. The composition has several advantages:
- Water resistance.
- Resistance to temperature extremes.
- Ease of application.
- Low cost.
- It shrinks.
- Cracks may form.
- Long dry.
Putty cement, finishing, due to its properties used in wet areas, such as kitchens and bathrooms.
Starting putty - the first layer of finish after plaster. This material has a large fraction and high strength. This type of material has high adhesion, regardless of which surface it is applied.
When choosing the starting putty, you need to consider the layer thickness, which is permissible during application, the maximum allowable layer is 25 mm.
Finishing moisture resistant putty - is applied with the second layer. This material is applied with a layer no higher than 4 mm and creates a perfectly flat surface on which any decorative material is applied to create the design. Due to its softness, finishing putty for painting is easily processed with diamond mesh or emery cloth.
Universal blends are multi-component, complex compositions that can be applied both to the base layer and as a finishing putty for the ceiling and walls. For nonprofessionals, this is the most convenient material, since all types of puttying are produced with a single compound. There are not many such compositions on the market, their cost is quite high.
Rules for applying finishing putty
The puttying work is performed in stages:
- before filling the walls, surface preparation is performed - dedusting, removal of mold, dirt, application of soil;
- plastering walls on the beacons, if the curvature of the surface is more than 1 cm;
- putting finishing hard putty;
For different materials that will be used for finishing, there are nuances how to properly apply on the finish walls:
- for vinyl and non-woven wallpapers, it will be quite enough to apply one layer of putty; when using paper, thin roll materials you will have to make two layers;
- if it is supposed to be painted with acrylic or polymeric paint, then at least three layers of putty will be needed;
- if the paint will be light shades, then you should apply a superfinishing composition on a polymer base.
Facade finishing white putty is applied to the surface of the walls when exterior finishing, only at a positive temperature of air. Humidity in this situation does not matter.
The first step is to prepare the mixture according to the manufacturer's instructions. Pour the right amount of water into a clean container in which to pour the mixture and mix well using a drill with a whisk. Some compounds, especially polymers, are subject to proofing, after which the mixture is mixed again.
Then with a small help spatula, 10 cm wide, pick up a small amount of the mixture and distribute it along the edge of a wide (35-40 cm) spatula.
Attach the tool to the surface and with smooth movements begin to distribute the material over the surface. First, the movement is performed vertically, then horizontally. It is important that the finishing putty lay flat.
It is advisable to put a finishing layer of putty with a new tool, on which there are no defects in the form of chipping, rust, dirt and scratches, otherwise the smooth surface will not work.
Once the composition is applied to the entire surface, it is left for 12 hours to dry, after which you can proceed to grinding.
Sanding finish putty in two ways:
- dry - using a fine-grained abrasive mesh, or finely fractional sandpaper;
- wet - to give the surface an ideal flatness, apply a damp sponge.
To ensure that there are no defects left on the oiled surface and it turns out to be perfectly smooth, use a light bulb, the light of which needs to be directed at the wall from different angles - where there is a shadow, there are defects. For painting you need to prepare the wall very carefully, otherwise any irregularity will be visible on the wall.
Finishing putty rating
The most popular putty for finishing walls are:
|Type of material||Description|
|Ceresit CT 127||Putty on polymer base, for interior decoration. Good quality at an affordable price. Easy to apply due to ductility, skins well.|
|KNAUF Multi-finish (based on cement)||Putty for the facade. Excellent material known manufacturer of building mixtures. Plasticity leaves much to be desired, but in general not a bad mixture.|
|Knauf Multi-finish plaster||Putty for interior work. Excellent material that is widely used in construction work. Good elasticity, easy application. There is a small drawback - it is badly cleaned after complete drying.|
|Vetonite||Well-proven when performing the finishing of decorative coatings. Minus - too high cost.|
|Hercules||A large assortment of finishing coatings, ranging from gypsum to polymer. All materials are of good quality, while they are inexpensive. In the market since 1997.|
|Miners||Good mixes at low cost.|
|Eunice||Good mixes, produced on the latest equipment. Excellent elasticity, ease of application to the surface, dries quickly and is well subjected to further processing.|
If, when performing repairs in his apartment, it was decided to apply the finishing putty of the walls and ceiling independently, then it is worthwhile to buy universal material, since it is much easier to work with it.